Maca

Beschrijving

Maca (Lepidium meyenii, peruvianum, wortel) is een hoog in het Andesgebergte groeiend Peruviaans knolgewas dat behoort tot de knolgewassen van de familie Brassicaceae. Mede vanwege de uitwerking op energie, uithoudingsvermogen, libido en vitaliteit is maca ook bekend onder de naam ‘Peruviaanse ginseng’, of ‘ginseng van de Andes’. De maca is de enige eetbare plant die onder extreme weersomstandigheden en op een hoogte tussen de 3000 en 4000 meter kan overleven. De wortels van de plant zijn zeer voedzaam en worden al duizenden jaren door de plaatselijke bevolking bij bijna elke maaltijd gebruikt.

Werking

Macamides, macaenes en andere werkingsstoffen

Indicaties

Peri- en postmenopauzale klachten

Contra-Indicaties

Vanwege de invloed van maca op de geslachtshormoonstofwisseling is terughoudendheid op zijn plaats bij mannen met verhoogde PSA-waarden (prostaatspecifiek antigeen) en bij vrouwen met hormoongevoelige borstkanker. Er is weinig bekend over de veiligheid van het gebruik van maca tijdens zwangerschap en het geven van borstvoeding.

Bijwerkingen

Van maca zijn geen noemenswaardige bijwerkingen bekend. In het Andesgebergte wordt ongeveer 50-100 gram macaknol per dag geconsumeerd zonder bijwerkingen. 

Interacties

Zoals alle planten uit de familie Brassicaceae bevat maca relatief veel vitamine K. Om die reden dienen patiënten die bloedverdunners gebruiken (anticoagulantia, zoals warfarine) voorzichtig te zijn bij gebruik van maca, omdat een hoge inname van vitamine K de werking van bloedverdunners tegengaat.

Dosering

De aanbevolen dosering bij gezonde volwassenen is 1500 tot 3000 mg gepulveriseerde macaknol per dag. Als extract kan met een (veel) lagere dosering (enkele honderden milligrammen) worden volstaan, afhankelijk van de mate van concentratie van het extract. Voor een stabiel therapeutisch effect is het raadzaam voor een gestandaardiseerd extract te kiezen, bij voorkeur gestandaardiseerd op bètasitosterol of andere sterolen.

Synergisme

Referenties

  1. B. L. Zheng, K.He, C. H. Kimet al., “Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats,” Urology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 598–602, 2000.
  2. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause 2008;15:1157–62.
  3. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on physiological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause 2008;15(6):1157-1162.
  4. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on physiological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause 2008;15(6):1157-1162.
  5. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on physiological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause 2008;15(6):1157-1162.
  6. Chacon de Popovici, Gloria. Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), Millenarian Peruvian Food Plant, With Highly Nutritional and Medicinal Properties. 1st Edition. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru. 2001, 1-337
  7. Chacon G. Pytochemical study on Lepidium meyenii. PhD Thesis. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru. 1961, 1-46 Libido-en potentiestoornissen
  8. Dini A, Migliuolo G, Rastrelli L, Saturnino P, Schettino O. Chemical composition of Lepidium meyenii. Food Chem. 1994;49(4):347-349.
  9. Dini I , Tenore GC , Dini A . Glucosinolates from maca ( Lepidium meyenii ) . Biochem Syst Ecol . 2002;30(11):1087-1090.
  10. Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G, et al. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther. Fall 2008; 14(3):182–191.
  11. Dording CM, Fsher L, Papakostas G, Farabaugh A, Sonawalla S, Fava M, Mischoulon D. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neuroscience Therapy and Therapeutics 2008;14(3):182-191.
  12. Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P. The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry. 2001;56(1):5-51.
  13. G. F. Gonzales, A. C´ordova, C. Gonzales, A. Chung, K. Vega, and A. Villena, “Improved sperm count after administration of Lepidium meyenii (maca) in adult men,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 3, pp. 301–304, 2001.
  14. Ganzera M, Zhao J, Muhammad I, Khan IA. Chemical profiling and standardization of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50(7):988-991.
  15. Ganzera M, Zhao J, Muhammad I, Khan IA. Chemical profiling and standardization of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Jul 2002; 50(7):988–991.
  16. Genyi L, Ammermann U, Quiros C. Glucosinolate contents in Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) seeds, sprouts, mature plants and several derived commercial products. Econ Botany. 2001;55(2):255-262.
  17. Gokavi SS, Malleshi NG, Guo M. Chemical composition of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds and its fractions and use of bran as a functional ingredient. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Summer 2004; 59(3):105–111.
  18. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, Chung A, Vega K, Villena A: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl 2001, 3(4):301-303.
  19. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C, Costillo S. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia 2002;34(6):367-372.
  20. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol 2003, 176(1):163-168.
  21. Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2005;3:5.
  22. Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005; 3:1–16.
  23. Gonzales GF, Ruiz A, Gonzales C, Villegas L, Cordova A: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats. Asian J Androl 2001, 3(3):231-233.
  24. Gonzales, G. F., Miranda, S., Nieto, J., Fernandez, G., Yucra, S., Rubio, J., Yi, P., and Gasco, M. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod.Biol Endocrinol 1-20-2005;3(1):5. 
  25. Lee MS, Shin BC, Yang EJ, Lim HJ, Ernst E. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2011 Nov;70(3):227-33. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.07.017. Epub 2011 Aug 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 21840656.
  26. Lewis RW, Fugl-Meyer KS, Corona G, Hayes RD, Laumann EO, Moreira ED Jr, Rellini AH, Segraves T: Definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med 2010, 7(4 Pt 2):1598-1607.
  27. Li G, Ammermann U, Quir´os C. Glucosinolate contents in Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chac´on) seeds, sprouts, mature plants and several derived commercial products. Econ Bot. 2001; 55:255–262.
  28. Lopez-Fando A, Gomez-Serranillos MP, Iglesias I et al. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res. 2004;18(6):471-4
  29. McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. Herbs of Commerce. 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association; 2000.
  30. Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska H, et al. Hormone-balancing effect of pre-gelatinized organic maca (Lepidium peruvanum chacon): (ii) physiological and symptomatic responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of maca in double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-centre clinical study. Int J Biomed Sci 2006;2: 360–74.
  31. Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska R, et al. Hormone-balancing effect of pregelatinized organic maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical response of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study. Int J Biomedical Sci. 2006;2(4):375-394.
  32. Meissner HO, Reich-Bilinska H, Mscisz A, Kedzia B. Therapeutic effects of pre-gelatinized organic maca (Lepidium peruvanum chacon) used as a nonhormonal alternative to HRT in perimenopausal women-clinical pilot study. Int J Biomed Sci 2006;2:143–59.
  33. Meissner, Kapczynski, Mscisz, Lutomski. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women - a Pilot Study. International Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2005;1(1):33-45.
  34. Meissner, Reich-Bilinska, Kedzia. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) used as a non-hormonal alternative to HRT in perimenopausal women - Clinical Pilot study. International Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2006;2(2):143-159.
  35. Meissner, Reich-Bilinska, Kedzia. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) used as a non-hormonal alternative to HRT in perimenopausal women - Clinical Pilot study. International Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2006;2(2):143-159.
  36. Obregon LV. “Maca” Planta Medicinal y Nutritiva del Peru. 1 Edition Lima: Instituto de Fitoterapia Americano. 2001, 1-182
  37. Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A, Zampelli A, Pizza C. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem. Sep 25 2002; 50(20):5621–5625.
  38. Rowland DL, Tai W. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Marital Ther 2003;29:185–205.
  39. Shin BC, Lee MS, Yang EJ, Lim H-S, Ernst E. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010;10(44):1-6.
  40. Tellez MR , Khan IA , Kobaisy M , Schrader KK , Dayan FE , Osbrink W . Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp) . Phytochemistry . 2002;61(2):149-155.
  41. TGA, Medsafe. Evaluation of a new Class 1 substance. Lepidium meyenii. Walpers (dried tubers). Permitted Ingredients List Project 2006. http://www.anztpa.org/cm/permitted.htm (Accessed September 24th, 2009).
  42. The International Association for Contract and Commercial Management. Evaluation of a new class 1 substance: Lepidium meyenii walpers; 2006. Available at: http://wwwfitoicacom/Biblioteca/Plantas/Maca/Articulos/2006-10pdf [accessed at 28.06.11].
  43. USDA 2011: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Lepidium meyenii Walp. Last updated 2011 June 25; Accessed 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
  44. Valentová K , Ulrichová J . Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii —prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases . Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub . 2003;147(2):119-130.
  45. Valentova K, Stejskal D, Bartek J, et al. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment. Food Chem Toxicol. Mar 2008; 46(3):1006–1013.
  46. Vecera R, Orolin J, Skottova N, Kazdova L, Oliyarnik O, Ulrichova J, Simaner V. The Influence of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Antioxidant Status, Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Rat. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 2007;62(2):59-63.
  47. Walker M. Effect of Peruvian Maca on hormonal functions. Townsend Lett. 1998 Nov:18-22.
  48. Wang Y, Wang Y, McNeil B, Harvey LM. Maca: An andean crop with multipharmacological functions. Food Res Intern 2007;40:783–92.
  49. Zenico T, Cicero AF, Valmorri L, Merculiali M, Bercovich E. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Andologia 2009;41(2):95-99.
  50. Zhang, Y., Yu, L., Ao, M., and Jin, W. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol 4-21-2006;105(1-2):274-279. 
  51. Zhao J , Muhammad I , Dunbar DC , Mustafa J , Khan IA . New alkamides from maca ( Lepidium meyenii ) . J Agric Food Chem . 2005;53(3);690-693.
  52. Zhao J, Muhammad I, Dunbar DC, Mustafa J, Khan IA. New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii). J Agric Food Chem. Feb 9 2005; 53(3):690–693.
  53. Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH, Rogers L, Shao Y, Huang ZY, Lu Y, Yan SJ, Qien LC, Zheng QY: Effect of a lipidic extract from lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology 2000, 55(4):598-602.
  54. (White Paper – Menopause and Maca-GO®)

Cookies

Als u verder klikt op onze website, gaat u er ook mee akkoord dat we cookies gebruiken. Daarmee verzamelen we gegevens en volgen we wat bezoekers doen op onze website. Met die informatie verbeteren we onze website en tonen we informatie die aansluit bij wat u interesseert. Als u geen cookies accepteert, kunt u geen video's bekijken of content delen op social media. Meer informatie.

Cookies zelf instellen